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The Carlisle Indian Industrial School, founded by the US Army officer Richard Henry Pratt in 1879 at a former military installation, became a model for others established by the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA).
Pratt said in a speech in 1892, "A great general has said that the only good Indian is a dead one.
So that not gold, nor silver, nor the other products of the earth alone, but men also are gathered from thence to bring those regions, which foreigners have unjustly called ferocious, to a higher state of virtue and cultivation." Harvard College had an "Indian College" on its campus in the mid-1600s, supported by the English Society for Propagation of the Gospel.
These institutions, intended to assimilate Native people into mainstream society and eradicate Native cultures, became integral components of American Indian identities and eventually fueled the drive for political and cultural self-determination in the late 20th century.Other schools were created in the East, where Indian reservations were less common than they became in the late nineteenth century in western states.West of the Mississippi, schools near indigenous settlements and on reservations were first founded by religious missionaries, who believed they could extend education and Christianity to Native Americans.I rejoice, brothers, to hear you propose to become cultivators of the earth for the maintenance of your families.Be assured you will support them better and with less labor, by raising stock and bread, and by spinning and weaving clothes, than by hunting.
But it has been conceived to be impracticable to civilize the Indians of North America – This opinion is probably more convenient than just.